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Now What? Knightley: A Novel Beten wir alle zum gleichen Gott? I Need a Job! Most important, make sure you use common sense and follow the instructions carefully. Do not deviate from the instructions without the instructor's permission. Two of the primary safety concerns in a chemistry laboratory are the toxicity and flammability of organic chemicals. As stated earlier, you need to become an active learner in this course and this text will promote the appreciation of the importance of chemical toxicity by having you determine from Internet sites the relative toxicity of some of the chemicals you are using.
In your previous chemistry courses, most of the experiments were conducted in aqueous solutions. Organic chemical reactions are commonly performed in flammable organic solvents. The best way to minimize fire danger is to totally avoid the use of flames in the organic chemistry lab. Unless the instructor gives you permission to use a Bunsen burner, always use an alternative heat source such as a heating mantle or a steam or oil bath.
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With safety considerations always in mind, remember that curiosity and creativity are great attributes. If you have an idea that you think might solve a problem or improve an experiment, discuss the idea with your instructor. It is possible that the instructor will encourage you to test your idea.
In order to help simplify the organic course material, your organic textbook will introduce generalizations or rules that will help you predict the structure of the products of some classes of organic reactions. The laboratory provides an ideal environment for learning and evaluating the "rules" of organic chemistry and for gaining experience with techniques for synthesizing, purifying and identifying organic chemicals. As a result of your studies in this course, you will be able to devise and carry out synthetic routes to desired products, classify reactions according to mechanism, use physical, chemical and spectroscopic properties to determine chemical structures and understand the role of organic chemistry.
As you perform the experiments in the laboratory, this text will help you determine the applicability of each technique used and the relationship of the experiment to the classroom portion of the course. For example, each time a purification technique is used, you should ask several questions including:. What size sample is appropriate for this technique?
What phase must the sample be for this technique to be used? What starting purity range should the sample be for this technique to be effective? What kind of purity should be achievable with this technique? What is a typical percent recovery using this technique?
Syllabus for Organic Synthesis - Uppsala University, Sweden
It is extremely important that you ask these questions so that in new situations you will know which technique is the one most likely to achieve your goals. Another method used in this book to encourage learning involves prelaboratory preparation. Each experiment will provide a list of activities that should be performed before you come to the laboratory. Proper preparation will significantly enhance learning and considerably shorten the time you need to finish the experiment.
There are many excellent organic laboratory texts available. This text has been in development during my 37 years of college teaching and 7 years since my retirement.
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Many qualities have been incorporated into the text that distinguish this text in some way from the many currently on the market. Almost all of the experiments contain some kind of challenge such as determination of which of several possible products has been synthesized that should help to make the experiments more fun and educational.
Internet sites have been integrated into many of the experiments enabling a substantial decrease in the number of pages required and a corresponding minimization of price. References to the source of each experiment have been included whenever possible. Chemical costs and hazards have been minimized. Important links between lecture topics and lab experiences are provided along with an effort to encourage students to think about what they are doing.
An exercise section has been included to fill in gaps where good experiments are not conveniently performed and to help students reinforce learning from the lecture part of the course.
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One of the special challenges is associated with my retirement. As a result, some of the experiments have not been tested by students in a classroom environment. A few have not been tested at all. At the end of the Table of Contents , there is a compilation of the development and testing status of each experiment. You should look at this as a special and positive situation. Because this book is a work in progress, updates will be made frequently. Each of you can contribute to this improvement process and attain a sense of ownership of the text.
It is hoped that each of you will contribute suggestions that will lead to improved editions of the text. You are about to begin a series of challenges that will help you learn organic chemistry. Most importantly, each time you use a procedure, ask yourself about the applicability of the procedure. There is a significant difference between people who have studied organic chemistry and people who have earned the title of organic chemist. This book will try to give you the insight or feel for the subject that bridges the gap from the apprentice to the master.
And remember, the master realizes that the most important goal everyday is to continue to learn. Do not be afraid of making mistakes. If you are not making mistakes, you are not doing anything.
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However, it is very important that you learn from your mistakes. Be sure to find out why you have missed problems. Chemistry keeps building and you don't want weaknesses in your foundation. When a basketball player goes on a hot streak and seems to be able to hit every shot, broadcasters often say the player is "in the zone" or "feeling it". Achieving this kind of mood should be your goal in this course. When you are in the zone or feeling it, organic syntheses and structure determinations although still challenging, will be fun, satisfying and rewarding.
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About 40 years ago while teaching at SUNY Stony Brook, I thought there was a need for an organic laboratory text based on an inquiry approach. A paper 1 about this time that the late Miles Pickering and I wrote entitled The Odor of Optical Isomers suggested that the experiment be presented to students with an inquiry approach.
Miles later wrote two provocative articles 2 stating that organic lab books contained experiments that were essentially verification in nature and not the best approach for learning. Recently, several articles have again expressed similar concerns 3 although some still argue that recipes are educational as well.
Many of the best organic lab texts available are hard bound and almost as expensive as the huge organic textbooks commonly used for organic chemistry courses. If the students were to study a significant portion of the book, the cost would be well worth it but most students read only a small portion of the book during their two semester course. The student is asked to carry out the procedure and verify that the instructions worked.
Verification experiments do not provide students the kind of experience that is needed for real world learning. Additionally, although some books refer students to the Internet, this text integrates use of the Internet as a chemistry resource throughout enabling a considerable reduction in the number of pages.