What is the effect?
The author lists diseases, both viruses and bacteria. In fact, other diseases were introduced by the Columbian Exchange, including malaria, yellow fever, whooping cough, chicken pox, the bubonic plague, and leprosy. Why was the introduction of these diseases so devastating for the Taino and not the Spanish explorers? The Taino had never been exposed to these diseases before and therefore had no natural immunity to stop or control the spread of the disease.
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The Spanish did have some natural immunity, since the diseases were present in Europe at that time. He reminds the reader that the devastating effects of diseases brought by the Exchange happened almost immediately for the Taino. This conveys the seriousness of the Exchange as well as the power of the diseases in a population with no natural immunity.
From the human perspective, the most dramatic impact of the Columbian Exchange was on humankind itself. Census agents fanned the across the island but found only 26, Taino. Thirty-four years later, according to one scholarly Spanish resident, fewer than Taino were alive…. Spanish cruelty played its part in the calamity , but its larger cause was the Columbian Exchange. Before Colon none of the epidemic diseases common in Europe and Asia existed in the Americas. The viruses that cause smallpox, influenza, hepatitis, measles, encephalitis, and viral pneumonia; the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, diphtheria, cholera, typhus, scarlet fever, and bacterial meningitis — by a quirk of evolutionary history, all were unknown in the Western Hemisphere.
The first recorded epidemic, perhaps due to swine flu, was in …. Mann describes in excerpt three a major change in Taino population on Hispaniola and the effects of this change on the Taino population and the Spanish. But another group was also affected — enslaved Africans. The Spanish used the encomienda system in Hispaniola, whereby conquistadors were given large plantations as well as the Indian slave labor of all who lived on the plantation. Through this system the Spanish moved quickly to enslave Indians, even though the official mission of the Spanish was to Christianize them.
Mann writes,. Slave ships bellied up to the docks of Santo Domingo in ever-greater numbers. The slaves were not as easily controlled as the colonists had hoped [and]…. No longer were Africans slipped into the Americas by the handful. The rise of sugar production [sugar production is very labor intensive] in Mexico and the concurrent rise in Brazil opened the floodgates. Between and …slave ships ferried across about , Africans, with the total split more or less equally between Spanish and Portuguese America….
Soon they [Africans] were more ubiquitous [existing everywhere] in the Americas than Europeans, with results the latter never expected. Mann, p. In what ways can New World slavery be said to be related to the Columbian Exchange? Discuss the possible unintended consequences with your classmates. Use specific examples as evidence. Worked extremely well in my World History class. Excellent selection of documents that provided various points of view. Students understood the Columbian Exchange and its implications. I love the close questions and the reading excerpts!
The review activity is also very beneficial because it provides cross curricular support by embedding the ELAR components! This lesson was designed to address higher order thinking skills. I was pleased to find that this lesson also connects to the present question 7. The use of AP strategies is clearly evident in this lesson.
It will actively engage students to investigate history through primary source documents. Well done! This provides an excellent way to compare a modern account with a primary source accounts. My favorite activity is the review activity that has students match main ideas with the text that supports them. I would like to see this activity put into the pdf versions so they could be printed out by the teacher and given to students to match in a small group activity.
This would be a useful addition to all of the interactive activities. This is an excellent introduction to the European involvement in the Americas.
I particularly like the detailed close reading questions. The vocabulary pop ups are helpful along with the detailed image list with references.
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The analysis of Mann's work is helpful. Overall avery thorough lesson that is structured and user friendly.
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I believe that this is a wonderful primary source resources because it provides 1. Multi facets of the Columbian Exchange 2. Supports the skills of the Common Core vocabulary, supporting statements with specific lines of the primary source 3. New vocabulary with the supporting definitions. I especially like the "Background questions" because it infuses the language of the way students are assessed within the lessons, as well as, the "Close read" being included in the lesson as a means of ensuring students deeper understanding and ability to manipulate the information being learned.
I also like the fact that a variety of resources are already included in the lesson. Finally, I like the inclusion of tiered vocabulary. This activity works well as a quick analysis to the Columbian Exchange. It is very similar to a recent essay question asked on the AP World exam ? I use this activity for quick discuss in class then have students answer the AP essay question as a graded assignment. An excellent blend of archival primary and secondary sources to encourage deep critical thinking from students.
National Humanities Center 7 T. However, acoustic space is limited and many acoustic parameters are correlated with one another.
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Therefore, the amount of frequency related variation that can be used by signalers to encode different vocal cues is ultimately constrained. This constraint can result in a trade-off between the various kinds of information and typically reduces reliability of at least one of the vocal cues [ 26 , 27 ]. For instance, the use by signalers of available variation for individual recognition conflicts with the need for stereotypic characteristics for group recognition in bird song [ 26 ].
Briefer et al. Segregation of information could partially resolve this trade-off by expressing functionally different cues in temporally distinct call segments or in different acoustic features [ 26 , 27 ]. In the white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys pugetensis , for example, individual identity and group membership are segregated into the distinct note complex and trill phrases of its song respectively, thus avoiding a trade-off in reliability between the vocal cues [ 28 ]. Similar segregation of information though not specifically referred to has been shown in the songs of meadow pipits Anthus pratensis [ 29 ], rock hyraxes Procavia capensis [ 30 ], humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae [ 31 ] and killer whales Orcinus orca [ 32 ].
Although this principle was proposed by Marler in [ 26 ], currently no studies have shown temporal segregation in the form of segmental concatenation within a single syllable call type. Such within-syllable encoding would have analogues with 'phonological' or segmental concatenation used in human language [ 33 ]. Contact calls are among the most common vocalizations produced by both mammalian and bird species. In a variety of species, contact calls seem to function to coordinate movements and cohesion of individuals on a range of spatial scales, concurrently with various behaviors and in a variety of social systems [ 34 , 35 ].
Contact calls have been shown to contain individual vocal cues [ 8 , 12 , 36 ] and group membership vocal cues [ 9 , 11 , 12 , 37 ]. Contact calls can also contain multiple vocal cues as has been shown in baboons [ 23 - 25 ] and meerkats Suricata suricatta [ 12 ]. In some species contact calls seem to function predominantly over mid- to long-distance, while in others contact calls play a more important role in short-distance communication.
It has been suggested that these short distance close calls, often low in amplitude and pitch and consisting of a single syllable, are better described as close calls [ 12 , 38 ]. Such close calls have the potential to provide constant information about the individual characteristics of the signaler and are likely used to monitor changes in behavior and relative spatial positioning of members in social groups [ 12 , 34 , 35 , 39 , 40 ].
They live in mixed sex groups, with an average of around 20 individuals, but groups occasionally grow to more than 70 individuals [ 41 ]. They forage together as cohesive units and cooperate in pup care, predator avoidance and territory defense [ 41 - 43 ]. During foraging, banded mongooses move in and out of dense vegetation with many position shifts, both in distance to nearest neighbor and in relative position within the group.
They regularly dig for food items in the soil with their heads down. They are often visually constrained during foraging and, therefore vocalizations play a critical role in keeping individuals informed of changes in the social and ecological environment. Banded mongoose use a range of graded vocalizations to coordinate behaviors and to maintain group cohesion [ 44 , 45 ]. One of the most commonly emitted call types is the close call and previous work has demonstrated the presence of an individual vocal cue within the call [ 46 ].
Subsequent field observations suggested additional graded variation in the close calls, which appeared to be related to the behavioral context experienced by the signaler personal observations DJ.
We, therefore, investigated whether banded mongooses' close calls contain multiple vocal cues and how these vocal cues are encoded in the temporal and frequency related aspects of this graded single syllable call type. The acoustic structure of close calls in banded mongoose varied significantly between individuals and behavioral contexts.